UV/Color Vision Information Sources

UV and Color Vision References

Popular Publications

1. CLANCY, UV The Invisible Factor. Petersen's Bowhunting. August 1990 pp 46-50.

2. GOOCH, BOB. Blaze in the Woods. OUTDOOR LIFE November 1992 pp 90-102.

3. MANDILE, TONY. Now they see you...Now they don't. OUTDOOR LIFE July 1990 pp 81-90.

4. Charles J. Alsheimer The Role of Color Vision in Whitetails. Deer & Deer Hunting December 1999 pp 20-28

5. ROBB, BOB The Question of COLOR. Whitetail Journal October 2000 pp 53-56

6. The Behavioral Test to Examine the Evolution of Color Vision in Vertebrates Link


7. How Birds Keep Secrets in Color, By Nick Atkinson(nwa@entangled.org) | April 27, 2005 From the-scientist.com: Direct Link:http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/23332/title/How-birds-keep-secrets-in-color/



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3. RODIECK, R. W., The Vertebrate Retina Principles Of Structure And Function. W. H. FREEMAN & CO.

4. SINCLAIR, S., Foreword by DEAN YEAGER, PHD., How Animals See, Other Visions of Our World. Facts On File Publications, New York.

5. WALD, G., Edited by Richard Jung, Life & Light Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume VII/3 Central Processing of Visual Information. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1973.

6. IVOSEVIC, S. W., Birder Camouflage on disguising appearance, movements, and location while watching or photographing birds. Stanley W. Ivosevic, Castle Hayne, 2000.

Juried Scentific Publications

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5. AHNELT, P. K. (1985). Characterization of the color-related receptor mosaic in the ground squirrel retina. Vision Research 25, 1557-1567.

6. ALEXANDER, G. & STEVENS, G. (1979). Discrimination of colours and gray shades by Merino ewes: tests using coloured lambs. Applied Animal Ethology 5, 215-231.

7. ALI, M. A. & KLYNES, M. A. (1985). Vision in Vertebrates. Plenum Press, New York.

8. ALPERN, M., LEE, G. B., MAASEIDVAAG, F. &- MILLER, S. S. (1971). Colour vision in blue-cone monochromacy. Journal of Physiology 212, 211-23 3.

9. BAILEY, W. J., SLICHTOM, J. I,. & GOODMAN, M. (1992). Rejection of the 'Flying Primate' hypothesis by phylogenetic evidence from the y-globin gene. Science 256, 86-89.

10. BARLOW, H. B. (1982). What causes trichromacy? A theoretical analysis using comb-filtered spectra. Vision Research 22, 63S-643.

11. BAUCHEMIN M. L: The fine structure of the pig's retina. Albrecht von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 190:27-45, 1974.

12. BAYLOR, D. A., NUNN, B. J. & SCHNAPF, J. I,. (1984). The photocurrent, noise and spectral sensitivity of rods of the monkey. Macaca fascicularis. Journal of Physiology 357, 575-607.

13. BAYLOR, D. A., NUNN, B. J. & SCHNAPF, J. I,. (1987). Spectral sensitivity of cones of the monkey Macaca fascicularis. Journal Of Physiology 390, 145-160.

14. BENNETT, A. T. D. & CUTHILL, I. C. (1994) Vision Res.34, 1471-1478

15. BENNETT, A. T. D., CUTHILL, I. C. & NORRIS, K. J. (1994) Am. Nat.144, 848-860

16. BENNETT., A. T. D., CUTHILL, I. C., PARTRIDGE, J.C.& MAIER, E. J. (1996) Nature (London)380, 433-435

17. BENNETT., A. T. D., CUTHILL, I. C., PARTRIDGE, LUNAU, K. (1997) Ultraviolet plumage colors predict mate preferences in starlings. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 94,,pp. 8618-8621

18. BIRCH, D. & JACOBS, G. H. (1975). Behavioral measurements of rat spectral sensitivity. Vision Research 15, 687-691.

19. BLACKWELL, H. R. & BLACKWELL, 0. M. (1961). Rod and cone receptor mechanisms in typical and atypical congenital achromatopsia. Vision Research 1, 62-107.

20. BLAKESLEE, B. & JACOBS, G. H. (1982). Color vision in the spider monkey (Ateles). Folia Primatologica 38, 86-98.

21. BLAKESLEE, B. & JACOBS, G. H. (1985). Color vision in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Brain, Behavior and Evolution 26, 154-166.

22. BLAKESLEE, B., JACOBS, G. H. & NEITZ, J. (1988). Spectral mechanisms in the tree squirrel retina. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 162, 773-780.

23. BOWMAKER, J. K. Trends Neurosci., 196, 1980.

24. BOWMAKER, J. K. (1984). Microspectrophotometry of vertebrate photoreceptors. Vision Research 24, 1641-1650.

25. BOWMAKER, J. K. (I 991a). Visual pigments, oil droplets and photopigments. In The Perception of Colour (ed. P. Gouras), pp. 108-127. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

26. BOWMAKER, J. K. (1991b). Visual pigments and colour vision. In From Pigments to Perception : Advances in Understanding Visual Processes (ed. A. Valberg and B. B. Lee), pp. 1-9. Plenum Press, New York.

27. BOWMAKER, J. K. (1991c). The evolution of vertebrate Visual pigments and photoreceptors. In Evolution of the Eye and Visual System led. J. R. Cronly-Dillon and R, L. Gregory), pp. 63-81. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

28. BOWMAKER, J. K., ASTELL, S., HUNT, D. M. & MOLLON, J. D. (1991). Photosensitive and photostabile pigments in the retinae of Old World monkeys. Journal of Experimental Biology 156, 1-19.

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30. BOWMAKER, J. K., DARTNALL, H. J. A. & MOLLON, J. D. (1980). Microspectrophotometric determination of four classes of photoreceptor in an Old World primate, Macaca fascicularis. Journal of Physiology 298, 131-143.

31. BOWMAKER, J. K., JACOBS, G. H. & MOLLON, J. D. (1987). Polymorphism of photopigments in the squirrel monkey: A sixth phenotype. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B231, 383-390.

32. BOWMAKER, J. K., JACOBS, G. H., SPIEGELHALTER, D. J. & MOLLON, J. D. (1985). Two types of trichromatic squirrel monkey share a pigment in the red-green spectral region. Vision Research 25, 1937-1946.

33. BOYNTON, R. M. 'Human Color Vision'. Holt-Rinehart-Winston, New York, 1979.

34. BRINDLEY, G. S. (1970). Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway.), 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

35. BURKHARDT, D. (1982). Birds, berries and UV. Naturwissenschaften 69, 153-157.

36. BURKHARDT, D. (1983). Wavelength perception and colour vision. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 36, 371-397.

37. BURKHARDT, D. & FINGER, E. (1991). Black, white, and UV: how birds see birds. Naturwissenschaften 78, 279-280.

38. BURN, D. M. (ed.) (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Animal World. Peerage Books, London.

39. BUSCH, H. & DUCKER, G. (1987). Das visuelle Leistungsvermogen der Seebaren (Arctocephalus pusillus und Arctocephalus australis). Zoologischer Anzeiger 219, 197-224.

40. CAMPENHAUSEN, C. von. (1986). Photoreceptors, lightness constancy and color vision. Naturwissenschaften 73, 674-675.

41. CHAUSSEIL, M. (1992). Evidence for color vision in procyonides: Comparison between diunal coatis (Nasua) and nocturnal kinkajous (Potos flavus). Animal Learning and Behavior 20, 259-265.

42. CICERONE, C. M. (1976). Cones survive rods in the light-damaged eye of the albino rat. Science 194, 1183-1185.

43. CICERONE, C. M. & NERGER, J. L (1980). The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralism Vision Research 29, 115-128.

44. COCKAYNE, E. A. (1924). The Distribution of Fluorescent Pigments in the Lepidoptera. Trans. Entom. Soc. London, 1924,pp. 1-19.

45. COILE, D. C. (1982). Adetermination of critical flicker fusion as a function of light intensity in dogs using conditioned supression. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Florida State Univ.

46. COHEN, A. I. (1972). Rods and cones. In Physiology of Photoreceptor Organs (ed. M. G. F. Fuortes), pp. 63-110. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

47. CORBET, G. H. & HILL, J. E. (1991). A World List of Mammalian Species, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

48. CRESCITELLI, F. (1963). Obituary: Gordon Lynn Walls. Vision Research 3, 1-7.

49. CRESCITELLI, F. & POLLOCK, J. D. (1972). Dichromacy in the antelope ground squirrel. Vision Research 12, 1553-1586.

50. CROCKER, R. A., RINGO, J., WOLBARSHT, M. L. & WAGNER, H. G. (1980). Cone contributions to cat retinal ganglion cells receptive fields. Journal of General Physiology 76, 763-768.

51. CRONIN, T. W. & MARSHALL, N. J. (1989). A retina with at least ten spectral types of photoreceptors in a mantis shrimp. Nature 339, 137-140.

52. CURCIO, C. A., ALLEN, K. A., SLOAN, K. R., LEREA, C. L., HURLEY, J. B., KLOCK, I. B. & MILAM, A. H. (1991). Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin. Journal of Comparative Neurology 312, 610-624.

53. DALRYMPLE, B. W.: When can your quarry see you? Outdoor Life 156:61, 1975.

54. DARTNALL, H. J. A., ARDEN, G. B., IKEDA, H., LUCK, C. P., ROSENBERG, C. M., PEDLER, H. & TANSLEY, K. (1965). Anatomical, electrophysiological and pigmentary aspects of vision in the bush baby: an interpretative study. Vision Research 5, 399-424.

55. DARTNALL, H. J. A. & LYTHGOE, J. N. (1965). The spectral clustering of visual pigments. Vision Research 5, 81-100.

56. DARWIN, C. (1871) The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (Murray, London).

57. DAW, N. W. & PEARLMAN, A. L. (1969). Cat colour vision: one cone process or several. Journal of Physiology 201, 745-764.

58. DAW, N. W. & PEARLMAN, A. L. (1970). Cat colour vision: Evidence for more than one cone process. Journal of Physiology 211, 125-137.

59. DAWIS, S. M. (1981). Polynomial expressions of pigment nomograms. Vision Research 21, 1427-1430.

60. DAWSON, W. W, (1980). The cetacean eye. In Cetacean Behavior: Mechanisms and Functions (ed. L. M. Herman), PP. 53-100. John Wiley, New York.

61. DEEGAN II, J. F. & JACOBS, G. H. (1993). On the identity of the cone types of the rat retina. Experimental Eye Research 56, 375-377.

62. DERRINGTON, A. M., KRAUSKOPF, J. & LENNIE, P. (1984). Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque. .Journal of Physiology 357, 219-240.

63. DE VALOIS, R. L. & DE VALOIS, K. K. (1988). Spatial Vision. Oxford University Press, New York.

64. DE VALOIS, R. L. & JACOBS, G. H. (1984). Neural mechanisms of color vision. In Handbook of physiology. Section r. Volume III. Sensory Processes (ed. I. Darian-Smith), PP. 425-456. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

65. DE VALOIS, R. L., MORGAN, H. C., POLSON, M. C., MEAD, W. R. & HULL, E. M. (1974). Psychophysical studies of monkey vision. I. Macaque luminosity and colour vision tests. Vision Research 14, 53-67.

66. DODT, E. (1967). Purkinje shift in the rod eye of the bush baby, Galago crassicaudatus. Vision Research 7, 509-517.

67. DUBIN, M. W. & TURNER, L. (1977). Anatomy of the retina of the mink (Mustela vison). Journal of Comparativ Neurology T,73, 275-288.

68. DUCKER, G. (1964). Colour-vision in mammals. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 61, 572-586.

69. EBREY, T. G. & HONIG,B. (1977). New wavelength-dependent visual pigment nomograms. Vision Research 17, 147-151.

70. EENS, M., PINXTEN, R. & VERHEYEN, R. F. (1991) Behaviorll6, 210-238

71. ELTRINGHAM, H. (1919). Butterfly Vision. Trans. Entom. Soc.London, 1919, pp. 1-49, 5 pls.

72. ENDLER, J. A. & THERY, M. (1996) Am. Nat.148, 421-452

73. ENDLER, J. A. (1987) Anim. Behav.35, 1376-1385

74. ENDLER, J. A. (1990) Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond.41, 315-352.

75. ENDLER, J. A. (1991) Vision Res.31, 587-608[Medline].

76. ENDLER, J. A. (1992). Signals, signal conditions, and the direction of evolution. American Naturalist 139, S125-S153.

77. ENGQVIST, A. & RICHARD, A. (1991). Diet as a possible determinant of cathemeral activity patterns in primates. Folia Primatologica 57, 169-172.

78. ESKEW JR., R. T. & BOYNTON, R. M. (1987). Effects of field area and configuration on chromatic and border discrimination. Vision Research 27, 1835-1844.

79. FEARE, C. (1984) The Starling (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford)-.

80. FELDMAN, J. L. & PHILLIPS, C. J. (1984). Comparative retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor ultrastructure in nocturnal and fossorial rodents: the eastern woodrat, Neotoma floridana and the plains pocket gopher, Geomys bursarius. Journal of Mammalogy 65, 231-245.

81. FRIEDMAN, H. (1967). Colour vision in the Virginia opossum. Nature 213, 835-836.

82. FRYXELL, K. J. & MEYEROWITZ, E. M. (1991). The evolution of rhodopsins and neurotransmitter receptors. Journal of Molecular Evolution 33, 367-378.

83. GILBERT JR., B. J. & ARAVE, C. W. (1986). Ability of cattle to distinguish among different wavelengths of light. Journal of Dairy Science 69, 825-832.

84. GOLDSMITH, T. H. (1986). Interpreting trans-retinal recordings of spectral sensitivity. Journal of Comparative Physiology A159, 481-487.

85. GOLDSMITH, T. H. (1990). Optimization, constraint, and history in the evolution of eyes. Quarterly Review of Biology 65, 281-322.

86. GOVARDOVSKII, V. I., ROHLICH, P,, SZEL, A. & KHOKHLOVA, T. V. (1992). Cones in the retina of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus: an immunocytochemical and electrophysiological study. Vision Research 32, 10-28.

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88. GRETHER, W. F. (1939). Color vision and color blindness in monkeys. Comparative Psychology Monographs 29, 1-38.

89. GRETHER, W. F. (1940). A comparison of human and chimpanzee hue discrimination curves. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26, 394-403,

90. GRIEBEL, U. & SCHMID, A. (1992). Colour vision in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Vision Research 32, 477-482.

91. GRIFFITHS, M. (1978). The Biology of Monotremes, Academic Press, New York.

92. GUENTHER, E. & ZRENNER, E. (1990). Analysis of the photopic spectral sensitivity of the cat reveals three cone mechanisms. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science Supplement 31, 260.

93. HARWERTH, R. S. & SPERLING, H. G. (1971). Prolonged color blindness induced by intense spectral lights in rhesus monkeys. Science 174,520-523.

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96. HAO, Y., SOREF, C. M, GERKE JR., C. G. & WONG, F. (1992). The visual pigment gene family and the distribution of photoreceptors in the pig retina. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 33, 1004.

97. HAROSI, F. (1987). Cynomologous and rhesus monkey visual pigment. Journal of General Physiology 80, 717-743.

98. HARWERTH, R. S. & SMITH 111, E. I,. (1985). The rhesus monkey as a model for normal vision of humans. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 62, 633-641.

99. HAWRYSHYN, C. W. (1982). Studies of animal color vision: comments on some important theoretical considerations. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60, 2968-2970.

100. HELMS, C. W. & DRURY, W. H. (1960) Bird Band.31, 1-40

101. HESS, R. F., MULLEN, K. T., SHARPE, I,. T. & ZRENNER, E. (1989). The photoreceptors in atypical achromatopsia. Journal of Physiology 417, 123-149.

102. HOPE, G. M. & BHATNAGAR, K. P. (1979). Electrical response of bat retina to spectral stimulation: comparison of four microchiropterian species. Experientia 35, 1189-1191.

103. HUNT, D. M., WILLIAM, A. J., BOWMAKER, J. K. & MOLLON, J. D. (1993). Structure and evolution of the polymomorphic photopigment gene of the marmoset. Vision Research 33, 147-154.

104. HUNT, S., CUTHILL, I. C., SWADDLE, J. P. BENNETT, A. T. D. (1997) Anim. Behav., in press.

105. HURVICH, L. M. & JAMESON, D. (1974). On the measurement of dichromatic neutral points. Acta Chromatica 2,207-216.

106. HURVICH, L. M. 'Color Vision'.Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., 1981.

107. IMMEL JR., J. H. (1981). The tree shrew retina: photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California, Santa Barbara.

108. JACOBS, G. H. (1977). Visual capacities of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). 1. Spectral sensitivity and color vision. Vision Research 17, 811-820.

109. JACOBS, G. H. (1978). Spectral sensitivity and colour vision in the ground-dwelling sciurids: results from golden-mantled ground squirrels and comparisons for five species. Animal Behaviour 26, 409-421.

110. JACOBS, G. H. (1981). Comparative Color Vision. Academic Press, New York.

111. JACOBS, G. H. (1983). Colour Vision In Animals.Endeavor, New Series, Volume 7, No.3, 1983.Pergamon Press.Printed Great Britain.

112. JACOBS, G. H. (1984). Within-species variations in visual capacity among squirrel monkey (Sairmiri sciureus): color vision. Vision Research 24, 1267-1277.

113. JACOBS, G. H. (1990 a). Duplicity theory and ground squirrels: Linkages between photoreceptors and visual function. Visual Neuroscience 5, 311-318.

114. JACOBS, G. H. (1990 b). Evolution of mechanisms for color vision. SPIE Proceedings 1250, 287-292.

115. JACOBS, G. H. (1990 c). Discrimination of luminance and chromaticity differences by dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys. Vision Research 30, 387-397.

116. JACOBS, G. H. 'Variations in Color Vision Among Nonhuman Primates in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics (eds.J. D.Mollon and L.T.Sharpe). Academic,London, in press.

117. JACOBS, GERALD H. (1991) Retinal Receptors in Rodents maximally sensitive to ultroviolet light. NATURE pp 655

118. JACOBS, G. H. (1992a). Data and interpretation in comparative color vision. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15, 40-41.

119. JACOBS, G. H. (1992b). Ultraviolet vision in vertebrates. American Zoologist 32, 544-554.

120. JACOBS, G. H. (1993). Color-vision polymorphisms in New World monkeys: Implications for the evolution of primate trichromacy,. In New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (ed. W. G. Kinzey) (In the Press.) Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

121. JACOBS, G. H. & BLAKESLEE, B. (1984). Individual variations in color vision among squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) of different geographical origin. Journal of Comparative Psychology 98, 347-357.

122. JACOBS, G. H., BLAKESLEE, B. & TOOTELL, R. B. H. (1981). Color discrimination tests on fibers in ground squirrel optic nerve. Journal of Neurophysiology 45, 903-914.

123. JACOBS, G .H. & NEITZ ,J. (1986). Spectral mechanisms and color vision in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). Vision Research 26, 291-298.

124. JACOBS, G. H., BOWMAKER, J. K. & MOLLON, J. D. (1981). Behavioural and microspectrophotometric measurements of color vision in monkeys. Nature 282, 541-543.

125. JACOBS, G. H. & DEEGAN II, J. F. (1992). Cone photopigments in nocturnal and diumal procyonids. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 171, 351-358.

126. JACOBS, G. H. & DEEGAN II, J. F. (1993). Photopigments underlying color vision in ringtail lemurs (Lemur catta) and brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus). American Journal of Primatology (In the Press.)

127. JACOBS, G. H., DEEGAN II, J. F., CROCNALE, M. A. & FENWICK, J. A. (1993). Photopigments of dogs and foxes and their implications for canid vision. Visual Neuroscience 10, 173-180.

128. JACOBS, G. H., DEEGAN II, J. F., J. NEITZ, B.P. MURPHY, K.V. MILLER, R.L. MARCHINTON (1994) "Electrophysiological measurements of spectral mechanisms in the retinas of two cervids: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and tallow deer (Dama dama)." Journal of Comparative Physiology, A 174:551 557.

129. JACOBS, G. H., DEEGAN, II, J. F., NEITZ, J., CROGNALE, M. A. & NEITZ, M. (1993). Photopignients and color vision in the nocturnal monkey. Aotus. Vision Research (In the Press.).

130. JACOBS, G. H. & HARWERTH, R. S. (1989). Color vision variations in Old and New World primates. American Journal of Primatology 18, 35-44.

131. JACOBS, G. H.& NEITZ, J. (1985). Spectral positioning of mammalian cone pigments. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 2, P23.

132. JACOBS, G. H. & NEITZ, J. (1986a). Spectral mechanisms and color vision in the tree shrew (Tripaia belatigeri). Vision Research 26, 291-298.

133. JACOBS, G. H. & NEITZ, J. (1986b). Spectral sensitivitv of cat cones to rapid flicker. Experimental Brain Research 62, 446-448.

134. JACOBS, G. H. & NEITZ, J. (1987). Polymorphism of the middle wavelength cone in two species of South American monkey: Cebus apella and Callicabus molloch. Vision Research 27, 1263-1268.

135. JACOBS, G. H. & NEITZ, J. (1987) Inheritance of color vision in a New World monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 84, 2545-2549.

136. JACOBS, G. H. & NEITZ, J. (1989). Cone monochromacy and a reversed Purkinje shift in the gerbil. Experientia 45, 317-319.

137. JACOBS, G. H., NEITZ, J. & CROGNALE, M. (1985). Spectral sensitivity of ground squirrel cones measured with ERG flicker photometrv. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 156, 503-509.

138. JACOBS, G. H., NEITZ, J. & CROGNALE, M. (1987). Color vision polymorphism and its photopigment basis in a callitrichid monkey (Saguintus fuscicollis). Vision Research 27, 2089-2100.

139. JACOBS, G. H., NEITZ, J., CROGNALE, M. A. & BRAMMEFR, G. L. (1991). Spectral sensitivity of vervet monkeys (Cerocopithectis aethiops sabaetis) and the issue of catarrhine trichromacy. American Journal of Primatology 23, 185-195.

140. JACOBS, G. H., NEITZ, J. & DEEGAN II, J. F. (1991). Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet light. Nature 353, 655 -656.

141. JACOBS, G. H. & SILVERMAN, M. S. (1976). Electrophysiological evidence for rod and cone-based vision in the nocturnal flying squirrel. Journal of Comparative Physiology 109, 1-16.

142. JANIS, C. M. & DAMUTH, J. (1990). Mammals. In Evolutionary Trends led. K. J. McNamara), pp. 301-345. Belhaven Press, London.

143. JOSHI, D. & CHANDRASHEKARAN, M. K. (1985). Spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors responsible for phase shifting the circadian rhythm of activity in the bat, Hipposideros speoris. Journal of Comparative Physiology A156, 189-198.

144. KALMUS, H. (1983). Kinds and intensity of selection at the colour vision loci. In Colour Vision Physiology and Psychophysics (ed. J. D. Mollon and L. T. Sharpe), PP. 51-55. Academic Press, London.

145. KAUFMAN, J. H. (1982). Raccoon and allies. In Wild mammals of North America led. J. A. Chapman and G. A. Feldhamer), PP. 567-585. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

146. KING-SMITH, P.E. & CARDEN, D. (1976). Luminance and opponent color contributions to visual detection and adaption and to mtemporal and spatial integration. Journal of the Optical Society of America 66, 709-717.

147. KOLB, H. & WANG, H. (1985). The distribution of photoreceptors, dopaminergic amacrine cells and ganglion cells in the retina of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Vision Research 25, 1207-1221.

148. KRAFT, T. W. (1988). Photocurrents of cone photoreceptors of the golden-mantled ground squirrel. Journal of Physiology 404, 190-213.

149. KRASTEL, H. & MORELAND, J. D. (1991). Colour vision deficiencies in ophthalmic diseases. In Inherited and Acquired Colour Vision Deficiencies (ed. D. H. Foster), pp. 115-172. Macmillan, London.

150. LAND, M. F. & FERNALD, R. D. (1992). The evolution of eyes. Annual Review of Neuroscience 15, 1-29.

151. LENNIE, P. & D'ZRIURA, M. (1988). Mechanisms of color vision. CRC Critical Reviews in Neurobiology 3, 333-400.

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